What does Conditional Immortality affirm and deny?
As a Christian doctrinal position, conditional immortality affirms that immortality—living forever and never dying—is a gift from God given only to the saved (; ; ; ; ; ; ).
It also tacitly rejects universal immortality, the view that all people either are or will be immortal. Since this is a tenet of both eternal torment and universal salvation, conditionalism necessarily denies those two positions.1
Conditional immortality, or conditionalism, is expressed in terms of a reward of “eternal life” for the saved, and an “eternal punishment” for the finally unsaved (). The punishment is an “eternal judgment” of death instead of life, since the wages of sin is death (; ). This requires an “eternal destruction” of “body and soul” ( cf. ).
Although the biblical label for that event is “the second death,” it can also be called annihilation (conditionalism and annihilationism may be used interchangeably). Whereas the concept of death indicates the forfeit of life but doesn’t specify duration, annihilation speaks of a death that is a permanent loss of life, and destruction of the whole person. Since God is the source and sustainer of life (; ; cf. ), this kind of demise may be considered a consequence of eternal separation or severance from God.
- Conditionalism therefore also rejects universal salvation’s stipulation of a universally-met condition for immortality.
16 who alone has immortality, who dwells in unapproachable light, whom no one has ever seen or can see. To him be honor and eternal dominion. Amen.
7 to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life;
10 and which now has been manifested through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel,
54 When the perishable puts on the imperishable, and the mortal puts on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written:
“Death is swallowed up in victory.”
50 This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that one may eat of it and not die. 51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”
25 Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, 26 and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?”
36 for they cannot die anymore, because they are equal to angels and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection.
46 And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.”
2 and of instruction about washings, the laying on of hands, the resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment.
23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
9 They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might,
28 And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell.
25 nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mankind life and breath and everything.
3 He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,
7 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers I will grant to eat of the tree of life, which is in the paradise of God.’
22 Then the Lord God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of us in knowing good and evil. Now, lest he reach out his hand and take also of the tree of life and eat, and live forever—”