The Traditional View Of Hell Is Rightly Called “Eternal Torture” (At Least Traditionally)

If you’ve ever been on the internet, then you’ve no doubt seen people of various beliefs object to the traditional (though not universal) Christian doctrine of eternal conscious hell by calling it “eternal torture.”1Unless otherwise noted, all scripture quotations I give are from the New American Standard Bible (NASB). Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960,1962,1963,1968,1971,1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. And if that has concerned you, then you’ve probably also been exposed to apologists rebutting that claim and denying that eternal conscious hell is really eternal torture.2 Al Serrato, “Is Hell Torment or Torture and Does It Make A Difference?”, Cross Examined [blog], posted February 15, 2020, https://crossexamined.org/is-hell-torment-or-torture-and-is-there-a-difference/ (accessed February 24, 2021). 3J. Warner Wallace, “Can The Existence and Nature of Hell Be Defended? (Free Bible Insert),” Cold-Case Christianity, July 1, 2014, http://coldcasechristianity.com/2014/can-the-existence-and-nature-of-hell-be-defended-free-bible-insert/ (accessed February 23, 2021). 4 Hank Hanegraaf, “Is Hell A Torture Chamber,” Equip [blog], posted February 18, 2018, https://equipblog.wpengine.com/is-hell-a-torture-chamber/ (accessed February 24, 2021).

As a result of this common experience, many today who believe in the doctrine of eternal conscious hell believe that it is not rightly called “torture,” and that descriptions of hell using that term are inappropriate.

However, eternal conscious hell really is eternal torturewith a couple of caveats.

The first caveat is that, to some, the English word “torture” has a connotation of being inherently unjust. Even if they believe that God physically torments people forever with fire, it would not be considered “torture” since that fate is deserved and is just. By that definition, any Christian must deny that God ever tortures anybody.

Second, there is a growing belief across greater Christendom (but especially among evangelicals) that hell is a place of eternal conscious suffering, but it is not a place of fire, physical agony, God’s active vengeance, and the like. The suffering is largely (if not entirely) emotional because people are cut off from the blessings of God. Under this view, hell is more like what C.S. Lewis would describe than something out of Dante’s Inferno.5 For more on Lewis’s view of hell, see C.S. Lewis, “8. Hell,” The Problem of Pain (HarperOne, 2001), 118-131. I often refer to it as the “modern, metaphorical” view for convenience.6 Other opponents of this view refer to it less neutrally, calling it the “air-conditioned” view of hell. They’re not wrong.

This modern, softened view of hell would arguably not fit under any typical meaning of “torture” either.

The Thesis and Core of the Matter

With those caveats in mind, it is nonetheless fair and reasonable to call eternal conscious hell “eternal torture” when we factor in church history and the scriptures. If a particular individual holds a modified view, like the modern, metaphorical view mentioned above, then we and they should acknowledge that their specific view differs from the actual tradition. But broadly speaking, if the descriptions of hell in the Bible are in fact speaking of an eternal, conscious experience, then a biblical hell would be eternal torture. The same is true for how believers in eternal conscious hell described it throughout most of church history.

Why This Matters (And Why It Does Not)

The purpose of this essay is not to convince the reader that the traditional doctrine of hell is a false doctrine. The argument that eternal conscious hell is rightly considered to be eternal torture does not itself show that eternal conscious hell is false. My goal is much simpler:

I want you, the reader, to care about what the Bible says about hell.

Certain kinds of arguments for or against something do not directly address the objective truth of the belief, and therefore are only of limited use. Appeals to emotions and pathos are common types of such arguments. Justifying the claim that eternal conscious hell really is eternal torture is not entirely an emotional argument, but I do admit that it is similar in practice. For the most part, the only real use of such an argument is in getting people to care about the issue so that we can then have the discussion about the objective truth of the matter (which many other Rethinking Hell articles can contribute towards).

Many Christians do not care to study the Bible’s teachings on hell in depth. No doubt that this is, at least in part, because many who might otherwise be concerned about the idea of God torturing people in hell forever are satisfied that he does not do so in their view. Well-meaning apologists have convinced them that eternal conscious hell is not eternal torture.

But what these apologists have taught about eternal conscious hell goes against both church history and scripture. And, at least in my experience, the argument that eternal conscious hell isn’t eternal torture isn’t even something that a lot of skeptical unbelievers take seriously because a broken clock is right twice a day.

If you are going to believe in eternal conscious hell, then you need to come to terms with what it entails and either accept it or, ideally, realize that it is important enough of an issue for you to spend some of your limited time looking into. You might be surprised by what the Bible has to say about it.

What Is Torture?

When looking into the question of whether eternal conscious hell is eternal torture or not, it is largely a question of what eternal conscious hell is, and whether that is consistent with the English word “torture” or not.

While “torture” can carry a connotation of undeserved cruelty, that is not its core meaning. The core meaning of “torture” simply pertains to the infliction of intense pain, at least for reasons other than the good of the recipient (thus a vaccine given via a shot is not torture even though it hurts). And in practice, it is not unheard of for people to use the term even more broadly, to describe any sort of prolonged agony (both literally and metaphorically). For this reason, Merriam-Webster gives two entries for “torture” with the following primary meanings:

Definition of torture (Entry 1 of 2)
1: the infliction of intense pain (as from burning, crushing, or wounding) to punish, coerce, or afford sadistic pleasure.
2a: something that causes agony or pain.
b: anguish of body or mind : AGONY…

Definition of torture (Entry 2 of 2)
transitive verb

1: to cause intense suffering to : TORMENT.
2: to punish or coerce by inflicting excruciating pain…7 Merriam-Webster, s.v. “torture,” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/torture (accessed February 22, 2021).

Note that punishment is one of the motivations of torturing someone. The motivations vary because the harmful infliction of excruciating pain, not the justness of it (or lackthereof), is the core aspect of what torture is. Doing so for the purposes of rightly deserved punishment (e.g. the “eternal punishment” of Matthew 25:46) is perfectly consistent with the traditional view of hell.

The Bible and Torture in Hell

Needless to say, I do not believe that the Bible teaches eternal conscious hell at all. But if it does, then it is hard to escape the idea that hell is fiery pain and physical torment (i.e. torture) for eternity, not just separation from God. The reasons for this include:

1. Several prooftexts for eternal conscious hell speak of fire. They are not separate ideas. And several of them are believed to speak of eternal torment specifically because it speaks of a fire that (supposedly) burns forever (e.g. Matthew 18:8, 25:41, and Mark 9:48).

If people in hell are in fire, and they don’t die as they normally would (which is the whole point of traditionalists citing these passages), then what outcome would we expect other than extreme physical pain (i.e. torture)?

2. Several prooftexts for eternal torment speak of physical torment (often in fire, for good measure) (e.g. Matthew 18:21-35, Luke 16:19-31, Revelation 14:9-11, 20:10).

This one is pretty self-explanatory. If you are going to appeal to passages that (supposedly) describe physical pain that is both extreme and endless in hell, in order to show that hell is eternal conscious suffering, then at face value, one would think the logical result of your argument would be eternal, physical agony (i.e. torture).

Revelation 14:9-11, referenced above, is especially telling. Within the context of the vision, it is explicitly about extreme physical torture (being burned with fire), done in God’s full and unmitigated anger and under his direct supervision. And yet, this passage is cited as a prooftext of eternal conscious hell by people who nonetheless believe that hell has no fire, that it is a place where God’s wrath is only passive by abandoning the unsaved, and that it is where the “torment” is internal and non-physical.

In other words, they cite this passage to show us what hell is while overtly contradicting most of what it says about what hell is actually like. That is quite a disconnect.

3. God’s wrath is applied to the unsaved in other prooftexts for eternal conscious hell. It abides on them (John 3:36). Jesus himself comes to retributively pay back the wicked for their sins in 2 Thessalonians 1:5-10 (not to just passively send them away).

Many versions of the modern, metaphorical view make a big point about God not actively and vengefully inflicting suffering on the unsaved in hell for their sins. Rather, it is much more passive. God sort of just sends them away to a dark, sad place where his blessings are not there. Often, it is even said that the wicked prefer this to going to heaven, where God is, because they hate him so much.

Passages that actively speak of God’s wrath towards the unsaved at judgment go against this idea. And passages like these are often cited by those who believe in eternal conscious hell, not in spite of the relationship to hell these passages have, but because of it!

The Affirmative Biblical Case for the Modern, Metaphorical View of Eternal Conscious Hell

Biblical arguments for the modern, metaphorical view of eternal conscious hell largely rely on metaphors in the Bible. The main argument is that hell is described as darkness in some places and as fire in others. Since fire is bright, you therefore cannot have darkness and fire at the same time, so neither one can be literal—or so the argument goes.

However, anyone who has ever seen a fire at night knows that this is not true. And even if the two elements were incompatible, that doesn’t mean that both are non-literal, especially since they are spoken of in separate instances. One could be literal and one figurative, as determined by context. And it is not as though fire-affirming believers over many centuries did not notice the fire and darkness and did not have explanations for them.

The argument that fire must be metaphorical because darkness is also mentioned is common but very weak.8 For more on this, see Ronnie Demler, “Yes, Fire and Darkness and Co-Exist,” Consuming Fire [blog], posted July 11, 2016, https://conditionalism.net/blog/2016/07/11/yes-fire-and-darkness-can-coexist/ (accessed February 22, 2021).

A Word About “Torment” vs. “Torture”

Some commentators consider the distinction between the English words “torment” and “torture” to be very material to this discussion.9 E.g. J. Warner Wallace, “Can The Existence and Nature of Hell Be Defended? (Free Bible Insert)”. They appeal to this distinction because English Bible translations tend to use “torment” and not “torture” in passages about hell and final punishment. It is argued that a literal, fiery hell of pain and God’s fury would be called “torture,” so the Bible choosing to use “torment” instead shows that hell is less gruesome, more metaphorical, more a place of internal anguish than physical pain, etc.

However, this is largely a distinction without an actual difference. The Greek word that is often translated as “torment” in relevant passages is basanizó, which can just as easily be translated as “torture” (and is in some verses/translations).10 “928 Basanizó,” Bible Hub, n.d. https://biblehub.com/greek/928.htm (accessed February 23, 2020). The distinction between “torment” and “torture” is an English distinction, not a Greek one. Furthermore, the two English words can be synonyms, depending on context. We see this, for example, in the John Wesley quotation below, where he speaks of the “torment” of having the flesh burned off one’s finger. Similarly, in typical translations of Revelation 14:10, where the “torment” is with fire, the two words are definitely synonymous because the “torment” is not regret or internal turmoil, but rather, it is speaking of the extreme physical pain of being burned alive (i.e. torture).

Other Remarks Regarding The Bible and The Metaphorical View of Eternal Conscious Hell

2 Thessalonians 1:9 also comes up, as it seems to speak of separation from God (in some translations). Of course, as noted above, the surrounding verses also speak of Jesus comingin fire, no less—and actively dealing out retribution (not merely passive separation) upon the wicked. And nothing in the passage excludes physical pain, torture, etc. (nor does it exclude annihilation).11 For more on 2 Thessalonians 1:9 and annihilation, see “Introduction to Evangelical Conditionalism: 2 Thessalonians 1:9“.

For more on these and other biblical weaknesses of more metaphorical, tortureless versions of eternal conscious hell, see my previous article, The Many and Varied Problems with the Modern, Metaphorical View of Hell.

What Has Eternal Conscious Hell Historically Meant to the Church?

Now, as noted above, if one believes in a softer view of eternal conscious hell, one that is a sort of sad, fireless quarantine state where the wicked are separated from God’s blessings but not actively tormented by anyone other than themselves, then their view of hell is arguably not eternal torture.

But that is not how hell has been described historically. Put bluntly, to the extent that the broader Christian church has believed in eternal conscious hell at all, it has believed something much more in line with Dante than C.S. Lewis.

Hell has predominantly been seen as a place of fire and endless pain and God’s active vengeance. I cannot say that no church figure ever believed in a softer, more metaphorical hell until recently. I’m sure someone did somewhere. But a fiery pit of torture was not considered a caricature for most of church history. The name Dante was not a four-letter word then, as it is in the presentations made by many apologists today.

I have gone into this in much greater detail in a three-part article series: “The Not-So-Traditional View: Does Your Particular Belief About Hell Really Have Church History On Its Side” (Part 2 is most relevant to this discussion). Even then, I only included a partial list of some relevant theologians and their didactic teachings. Things like mystical visions of fire and eternal torture that saints claimed throughout the medieval church, which were taken seriously at the time, were not included.

For our purposes here, I will give just a few quotations that are a good representation of what various church teachers across time and denominations taught (and I invite the reader to look deeper, such as by reading The Not-So-Traditional View: Does Your Particular Belief About Hell Really Have Church History On Its Side – Part 2).

Tertullian of Carthage: Therefore, after this there is neither death nor repeated resurrections, but we shall be the same that we are now, and still unchanged – the servants of God, ever with God, clothed upon with the proper substance for eternity; but the profane, and all who are not true worshippers of God, in like manner shall be consigned to the punishment of everlasting fire – that fire which, from its very nature indeed, directly ministers to their incorruptibility.12 Tertullian of Carthage, Apology, XLVIII, Trans. S. Thelwell, found in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Vol. II, eds. Alexander Robertson and James Donaldson (Christian Literature, 1887) 54, reproduced at Google Books, n.d., https://books.google.com/books?id=L-pTAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed February 22, 2021).

Augustine of Hippo: As the soul too, is a proof that not everything which can suffer pain can also die, why then do they yet demand that we produce real examples to prove that it is not incredible that the bodies of men condemned to everlasting punishment may retain their soul in the fire, may burn without being consumed, and may suffer without perishing?13 Augustine, The City of God: volume 2, ed. Marcus Dods, (T & T clark, 1871), XXI, iii, Page 416, reproduced at Google Books, n.d. https://books.google.com/books?id=OykMAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false, (accessed February 22, 2021).

Thomas Aquinas: The bodies of the damned will not be brilliant: ‘Their countenances shall be as faces burnt.’ Likewise they shall be passible, because they shall never deteriorate and, although burning eternally in fire, they shall never be consumed.14 The Catechism of St. Thomas Aquinas, Trans. Joseph Collins, (Catholic Primer, 2014), 50, reproduced at Documenta Catholica Omnia, n.d., http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/03d/1225-1274,_Thomas_Aquinas,_Catechismus,_EN.pdf (accessed February 22, 2022).

John Wesley: Is it not common to say to a child, ‘Put your finger in that candle, can you bear it even for one minute?’ How then will you bear Hell-fire? Surely it would be torment enough to have the flesh burnt off from only one finger; what then will it be to have the whole body plunged into a lake of fire, burning with brimstone?15 John Wesley, “Sermon LXXIII,” found in The Works of the Rev. John Wesley: Volume 6 reproduced at Google Books, n.d., https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Works_of_the_Rev_John_Wesley/0NFhAAAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq (accessed February 22, 2021).

A.W. Pink: Let those who dare affirm that the Hell-fire is non-literal answer to God.16A.W. Pink, Eternal Punishment, (n.p., 1940), 36, reproduced at archive.org, n.d., https://archive.org/details/EternalPunishment (accessed January 30, 2016).

In Light of History, Calling Hell “Torture” is Not a Strawman

Not only does church history contribute to the case that eternal conscious hell is eternal torture in substance, but also, historical figures in the church have had no qualms about describing hell with the very term “torture.”

Note: I credit Ronnie Demler of the Consuming Fire blog for pointing this out. His list is more exhaustive, and I welcome and encourage any reader to check out his article on the topic, which also addresses other, related issues as well.17 Ronnie Demler, “Torture,” Consuming Fire [blog], posted October 5, 2012, https://conditionalism.net/blog/2012/10/05/torture/ (accessed February 22, 2021, ).18 Demler has also made guest contributions to the Rethinking Hell blog, as well as Episode 58 of the podcast, which surveys uses of the language of death and destruction in relation to hell across church history with some very surprising (or not-at-all surprising) findings. It is one of my all-time favorites, and it is a must-listen for anyone interested in the hell debate).

In order to maximize the impact of a short list, the examples below were all originally written in English, which means their use of “torture” was intentional and not the product of translators (emphasis added in bold). Nevertheless, the fact that others who spoke in foreign languages used terms best translated as “torture” is also quite telling.

John Gill: So the fire of hell, as it will burn, torture, and distress rebellious sinners, it will preserve them in their beings; they shall not be consumed by it, but continued in it.19 John Gill, “Mark 9,” John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible, (n.p., n.d.), reproduced at Studylight.org Commentaries, n.d., http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/mark-9.html (accessed March 31, 2016).

Jonathan Edwards: Do but consider what it is to suffer extreme torment for ever and ever; to suffer it day and night…with your souls full of dreadful grief and amazement, with your bodies and every member full of racking torture.20 Jonathan Edwards, “Sermon XI: The Eternity of Hell’s Torments,” The Works of Jonathan Edwards: Volume II, (Banner of Truth Trust, 1834), 234, reproduced at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, n.d https://www.ccel.org/ccel/edwards/works2.iv.xii.html.

Frederick Faber (19th-century Catholic priest and author): It is a severity not only beyond all historical record of cruelty, or even the union of all actual cruelties, but beyond all our imaginations of conceivable torture…God can find unimaginable capabilities of pain in the immortal body, and yet more unimaginable capabilities in the soul.21 Frederick Faber, Notes on Doctrinal and Spiritual Subjects: Vol. 2, (Thomas Richardson & Son, 1866), 188-189, reproduced at Google Books, n.d., https://books.google.com/books?id=exLMm4_51s0C&pg=PA189&lpg=PA189&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false, (accessed on February 22, 2020).

Charles Spurgeon: There is a real fire in hell, as truly as you have now a real body—a fire exactly like that which we have on earth in everything except this—that it will not consume, though it will torture you.22 Charles Spurgeon, “Sermon 66, 67,” [Sermon], London, UK, February 17, 1856, The Complete Works of Charles Spurgeon: Vol. 2, (Delmarva, 2014), Kindle edition, Locations 13191 to 13215.

It’s pretty hard to justify the idea that Jonathan Edwards or Charles Spurgeon were strawmanning themselves and being uncharitable to the beliefs of those they agreed with.

Conclusion

All of this discussion, of course, is based on the implications of eternal conscious hell being what the Bible teaches. It is not actually what the Bible teaches, and this ministry and project seeks to demonstrate this (as we do elsewhere on this site, on the podcast, Youtube channel, etc.). It is also worth noting that there were some—arguably many—in the early church who did not believe in eternal conscious hell, either. Eternal conscious hell has been historically dominant, not universal.23 For more on this, see “Introduction to Evangelical Conditionalism: The Doctrine of Eternal Torment Was Not Universal in the Early Church“.

Now, if you still believe that the modern, metaphorical view is biblical, fair enough. But understand that your view is something of an outlier; among those who believed in any form of eternal conscious hell, the “caricatures” and “strawmen” that you might be tempted to accuse eternal conscious hell deniers and detractors of making are really just the historical (and less biblically inaccurate) norm. And that norm is eternal torture.

But if I have succeeded here, then you will not hold the modern, metaphorical view now (or you will at least now realize its weaknesses). So if you believe that eternal conscious hell is what the Bible teaches, then you need to be willing to accept that it is what it is. And if you are not so sure, then now is as good of a time as ever to reconsider and see if the Bible’s actual teaching isn’t a bit different from you had thought.

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References
1 Unless otherwise noted, all scripture quotations I give are from the New American Standard Bible (NASB). Scripture taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960,1962,1963,1968,1971,1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.
2 Al Serrato, “Is Hell Torment or Torture and Does It Make A Difference?”, Cross Examined [blog], posted February 15, 2020, https://crossexamined.org/is-hell-torment-or-torture-and-is-there-a-difference/ (accessed February 24, 2021).
3 J. Warner Wallace, “Can The Existence and Nature of Hell Be Defended? (Free Bible Insert),” Cold-Case Christianity, July 1, 2014, http://coldcasechristianity.com/2014/can-the-existence-and-nature-of-hell-be-defended-free-bible-insert/ (accessed February 23, 2021).
4 Hank Hanegraaf, “Is Hell A Torture Chamber,” Equip [blog], posted February 18, 2018, https://equipblog.wpengine.com/is-hell-a-torture-chamber/ (accessed February 24, 2021).
5 For more on Lewis’s view of hell, see C.S. Lewis, “8. Hell,” The Problem of Pain (HarperOne, 2001), 118-131.
6 Other opponents of this view refer to it less neutrally, calling it the “air-conditioned” view of hell. They’re not wrong.
7 Merriam-Webster, s.v. “torture,” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/torture (accessed February 22, 2021).
8 For more on this, see Ronnie Demler, “Yes, Fire and Darkness and Co-Exist,” Consuming Fire [blog], posted July 11, 2016, https://conditionalism.net/blog/2016/07/11/yes-fire-and-darkness-can-coexist/ (accessed February 22, 2021).
9 E.g. J. Warner Wallace, “Can The Existence and Nature of Hell Be Defended? (Free Bible Insert)”.
10 “928 Basanizó,” Bible Hub, n.d. https://biblehub.com/greek/928.htm (accessed February 23, 2020).
11 For more on 2 Thessalonians 1:9 and annihilation, see “Introduction to Evangelical Conditionalism: 2 Thessalonians 1:9“.
12  Tertullian of Carthage, Apology, XLVIII, Trans. S. Thelwell, found in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Vol. II, eds. Alexander Robertson and James Donaldson (Christian Literature, 1887) 54, reproduced at Google Books, n.d., https://books.google.com/books?id=L-pTAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed February 22, 2021).
13  Augustine, The City of God: volume 2, ed. Marcus Dods, (T & T clark, 1871), XXI, iii, Page 416, reproduced at Google Books, n.d. https://books.google.com/books?id=OykMAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false, (accessed February 22, 2021).
14  The Catechism of St. Thomas Aquinas, Trans. Joseph Collins, (Catholic Primer, 2014), 50, reproduced at Documenta Catholica Omnia, n.d., http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/03d/1225-1274,_Thomas_Aquinas,_Catechismus,_EN.pdf (accessed February 22, 2022).
15  John Wesley, “Sermon LXXIII,” found in The Works of the Rev. John Wesley: Volume 6 reproduced at Google Books, n.d., https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Works_of_the_Rev_John_Wesley/0NFhAAAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq (accessed February 22, 2021).
16 A.W. Pink, Eternal Punishment, (n.p., 1940), 36, reproduced at archive.org, n.d., https://archive.org/details/EternalPunishment (accessed January 30, 2016).
17 Ronnie Demler, “Torture,” Consuming Fire [blog], posted October 5, 2012, https://conditionalism.net/blog/2012/10/05/torture/ (accessed February 22, 2021, ).
18 Demler has also made guest contributions to the Rethinking Hell blog, as well as Episode 58 of the podcast, which surveys uses of the language of death and destruction in relation to hell across church history with some very surprising (or not-at-all surprising) findings. It is one of my all-time favorites, and it is a must-listen for anyone interested in the hell debate).
19  John Gill, “Mark 9,” John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible, (n.p., n.d.), reproduced at Studylight.org Commentaries, n.d., http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/mark-9.html (accessed March 31, 2016).
20 Jonathan Edwards, “Sermon XI: The Eternity of Hell’s Torments,” The Works of Jonathan Edwards: Volume II, (Banner of Truth Trust, 1834), 234, reproduced at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, n.d https://www.ccel.org/ccel/edwards/works2.iv.xii.html.
21  Frederick Faber, Notes on Doctrinal and Spiritual Subjects: Vol. 2, (Thomas Richardson & Son, 1866), 188-189, reproduced at Google Books, n.d., https://books.google.com/books?id=exLMm4_51s0C&pg=PA189&lpg=PA189&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false, (accessed on February 22, 2020).
22  Charles Spurgeon, “Sermon 66, 67,” [Sermon], London, UK, February 17, 1856, The Complete Works of Charles Spurgeon: Vol. 2, (Delmarva, 2014), Kindle edition, Locations 13191 to 13215.
23 For more on this, see “Introduction to Evangelical Conditionalism: The Doctrine of Eternal Torment Was Not Universal in the Early Church“.
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